THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES

ETHIC RULES

  1. 0.      SUBSIDIARY SOURCES

There is not any standard, universal basic documentation for ethic. Below mentioned principles and examples are just for advisory purposes. During this process, three web pages are used:

  1. http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/plagiarism_FAQ.html
  2. http://fbe.metu.edu.tr/index.php?lid=11&cid=0&lang=tr

It is strongly recommended to follow these web sites while examining the below text. In preparation of this document the corresponding ethics page of METU has been taken as a reference. Some parts have been entirely adopted.

  1. 1.      INTRODUCTION

The Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences applies below mentioned ethic rules in any kind of publishing and documents which are in its study area, especially the post graduate thesis. Aims of the rules are to provide an intellectual production which is respectful to the intellectual properties of others.

  1. 2.      PLAGIARISM (Pilferage)

Plagiarism is purposely or unknowingly to use intellectual properties of others without stating sources or in an inconvenient manner in creating your own intellectual properties.

  1. 3.      TYPES OF PLAGIARISM

(Attention: This part is taken from the page of METU.)

Plagiarism may be in different ways.

It is one of the most common plagiarism types to partly or fully copy word for word a student’s writing or somebody else’s composition, a section of a book or newspaper or an article in a newspaper without stating the source.

The most common second type of plagiarism is to change linguistic and structural way of the thought and ideas in someone’s study. Changing the words, omitting the words or changing their orders is also plagiarism. In that case, the source should be stated in the footnote.

Another type of plagiarism is to write a text which is based on another person’s ideas. In this text, the language and expressions belong to the person who writes it but ideas do not. [K1]

  1. 4.      EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM IN WRITTEN

(Attention: This part is taken from the page of METU.)

In this part, you will find examples showing why a text is considered as plagiarism and how you can write a text by avoiding plagiarism. These examples are mostly seen on student writings.

  1. 1.     Copying whole part

Original Writing

“Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those

that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and

those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e.,

fundamental models)” (K2.)

How it is written in the writing of the student

There are two fundamentally different models of anomalous mental phenomena developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models). These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.

Evaluation

Even though one or two words are changed, whole paragraph is used as it is in original, however it is considered as plagiarism, because the source is not stated. In the last sentence, it is understood that the student wrote it, but it is not referred in the required place and that’s why it seems as plagiarism.

An example for correct quotation:

 

‘Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models)”( May, Utts and Spottiswood ,1995). These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.

  1. 2.     Copying small parts and using them in a disorder

Original Writing

“Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models).

How it is written in the writing of the student

Two different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: phenomenological model and fundamental models. These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.

 

Evaluation

It seems that the student is selective while using the information in the text. However, the missing quotation marks and sources which states the part is quoted turn this text into a plagiarized one.

An example for correct quotation:

May, Utts and Spottishwood (1995) stated that two models have been formed for anomalous mental phenomena, which are “phenomenological model” and “fundamental model”. These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s bahaviour patterns.

  1. 3.     Showing someone else’s ideas as his own

Original Writing

Novelist E. M. Forster famously criticized Dickens’ characters as “flat”, lamenting that they seem to lack the

depth and complexity that make literary characters realistic and believable. Charles Darnay and Lucie Manette

certainly fit this description. A man of honor, respect, and courage, Darnay conforms to the archetype of the

hero but never exhibits the kind of inner struggle that Carton and Doctor Manette undergo. His opposition to

the Marquis’ snobbish and cruel aristocratic values is admirable, but, ultimately, his virtue proves too uniform,

and he fails to exert any compelling force on the imagination. (Jackson, 2003)

How it is written in the writing of the student

‘Dickens’ characters in this novel are flat and they lack the depth and complexity that make literary characters

realistic and believable. Charles Darney and Lucie Manette are perfect examples for this description. The

character Darney, is depicted as honorable, respectful and couraguous, and he conforms to aspects of a hero.

However, according toJackson(2003), he does not show “the kind of inner struggle that Carton and Doctor

Manette undergo”.

Evaluation

In this writing the student used another quotation used in a different source (in here: E. M. Forster). In this example, first two sentences seem his own comments, because the real owner of the comment is not quoted. This is also plagiarism. Somewhere in the writing, it should be stated that the comments of Forster are narrated and this is found in the writing ofJackson.

An example for correct quotation:

‘E.M. Forster comments that the people shown in the novel are “flat” and they do not have “the depth and

complexity that make literary characters realistic and believable” [K3]. Another critic, Jackson reasons that

Darney looks as ‘honorable, respectful and couraguous’, so he fits the definition of a ‘hero’.  On the other hand,

hand, he does not suffer from the psychological difficulty as Carton and Doctor Manette experience (2003). As

a result, the readers are faced with a heroic but conforming Darney as opposed to Carton and Manette in

Dickens’s novel.

  1. 5.      METHODS TO UNDERSTAND PLAGIARISM

(Attention: This part is taken from the page of METU.)

The homeworks which are prepared with plagiarism have some common features. The most common ones:

  • Mixed quotation method: Because the students use cut-paste method, there may be a few quotation methods in their written homework. For example, if Verdana and Tahoma writing styles or APA andChicago quotation methods are used in the same text, it shows us that homework is plagiarized.
  • Missing quotation: If there is not any quotation in the homework paper, it mean either the student use a research source such as encyclopedia which gives general information or the student do not know anything about the quotation and bibliography methods. And this is inevitably plagiarism.
  • Too old sources: If there are not any up-to-date sources in homework, it is a sign of plagiarism. Many students think that old resources are forgotten and choose to make  plagiarism from these.
  • Changes in language use and style of word choice: Most of the students who make plagiarism do not know to have a consistent style in their homework. So when they cut the paragraphs and copy them to their homework, they do not realize the style changes between the paragraphs. If the style of homework changes from a formal language to a daily language, from a simple grammar to a complex grammar or if other parts of the text seem weaker, it means there is a plagiarism. When you face with these kind of paragraphs in a text which seem as plagiarism:
  1. You can search for the source in a library or on the internet.
  2. Or Ask student why he uses different quotation methods in his homework or why he chooses to use an old resource (why he prefers this sources to up-to-date sources) or why he uses such a difficult word in his homework (Why did you prefer to use “exacerbate” word here?). Asking these questions lets your student to justify himself.
  1. 6.      METHODS TO PREVENT PLAGIARISM

(Attention: This part is taken from the page of METU.)

1. Train your students about plagiarism: Most of the students choose to make plagiarism on purpose but some of them do not realize they made this and do not know this is unacceptable. Giving information about plagiarism and its types will help the students who are not aware of this.

Students should know that below mentioned articles are plagiarism and that is why they are unacceptable.

a.Copying from the published or internet sources without stating its source

b.Taking parts from different sources via “cut and paste” method and not showing any source

c.Quoting only a part of the whole quotation

d.Inventing imaginary sources (for example: making up statistics, talking about the surveys which are not conducted and stating not obtained results, etc.)

e.Using ideas in another source by changing its words and without stating its source.

2.Prepare a list for the subjects of the homework: If you make a list of the topics you will your students as homework, it will decrease the possibility of plagiarism. Giving different topics in each semester decreases the possibility of plagiarism.

3.Clearly specify the subject and scope of the homework: Clearly specify what you expect in a homework. It will decrease the possibility of plagiarism if you say your students they have to use at least two published, two internet and one essay sources, and they should be published in last five years. In this way they will lose the chance to find the homework on the internet and give it to you, because this explanation will make it hard to find homework according to your demands. It will help you to write a text which explains your expectations in homework.

  1. State a few dates for up-date works: This methods works well to prevent plagiarism. If you say your students to be ready to discuss their homework during course hours, you can follow their preparations for their homework. You can assign meetings to discuss their homework. For example, stating the problem, finding first sources and reading them, creating first scratch of the homework, writing it, etc. In this way you can follow the each step of the homework and the student will not make plagiarism at the last day to prepare his homework.
  2. Ask for an oral presentation or an interpretation for the homework: You can ask your students for a short presentation or an interpretation of their homework at the end of the term. In this way, student s will understand that they have to know something about their homework.
  3. Explain them what are the penalties: Explain your student what they will face with, if they make plagiarism. Telling them “The ones who make plagiarism in their homework will get an F for this course / homework.” will discourage students from making plagiarism.

7. METHODS TO STAY AWAY FROM PLAGIARISM

(Attention: This part is taken from the page of METU.)

Methods to stay away from plagiarism are as follows:

* Consult the instructor: Consult your instructor before you start your homework, during your research period and while using resources. Because the instructor who will read and evaluate your homework is experienced in resource usage, he will show you the best way.

* Learn quotation and bibliography rules accepted in your department / faculty: You should learn the rules of quotation and bibliography in your faculty and institute from the related people and sources. Because different faculties may follow up different methods, you should find a guide and use it in your all education life to learn what method your department accept (for example MLA, APA or Chicago methods).The guides may be found in İYTE library and İYTE Academic Writing Center (part of full sentence: in school library, Academic Writing Center and on the internet)

* Start your studies earlier: Do not leave your homework to the last day. You will need time to search sources and read them, think about their connection with your homework and plan them, combine this information with your ideas and write it in accordance with quotation rules.

* Always take notes and show sources while you are reading your sources: Before you write your homework and during your research period, take notes in a different notepad or save them in a computer. While you are taking notes, immediately take note of source data (name of the book and essay, name of the authors, publishing date and page number). If you do not do that, you cannot compare the sources where you find the information or get lost and you can mix your own ideas with the ideas of other people as if they were yours.

* Keep a different notebook to write your own ideas: Keep a note book to write your own ideas, comments, and interpretations. In this way, after you read so many sources about this study, you will not mix your own ideas with other ideas. You do not have to quote your own ideas. However, you need to support your own ideas with text written in this field and make quotations.

*Show the source of the each information you find in a source: Whether you get a word or a whole paragraph, you should put quotation mark before and after it (“….”) and you should write the source of the information. Quotation should be stated even if it is short or not.

* When you change the word in the source or summarize them, show the resource: When you change the words and sentences of the author in the source or summarize them, you do not have to put them into quotation marks. However, you should state the name of the author. If you do not do that, it seems as if they were your ideas and it becomes plagiarism.

* State any kind of source you use: If you use an idea or information on purpose from a source such as an internet page, a discussion forum on the internet, an unofficial presentation or a speech. You must not use information or comment you see or hear in another place.

* Wring a text (homework) or research containing your own ideas and comments: Sometimes students think that if they show all the sources they used in the preparation of their homework, there will be no place to write their own ideas. Sometimes in their homework all quotations are aligned in succession or student tries to be away from using so much quotations and it becomes plagiarism. To use your sources effectively and have space to write your own ideas, you should do these:

– Keep different notebooks for your own ideas and comments and for the quotations from other sources.

– After you start to write your own comments and ideas, use the quotations to support and explain your thoughts and to give example.

-Write transition sentences, explanations and comments between your quotations. For example, if you write different definitions of a term, explain these differences or similarities with your own words.

– Try to read sources with a critical approach and evaluate them. Explain the relationship between your ideas with your own words.

8. ADDITONAL INFORMATION AND WARNINGS

– To get help for plagiarism, it will be helpful to look at “Question and  Answer” section in IEEEE page. Also, you can find a similar part in the webpage of METU.

– You can get help for definitions and other explanation in the webpage of Webster.

– The classification given in the webpage of IEEEE may help you to have an idea what plagiarism is ( five different plagiarism phases).

REFERENCES

 K1. Weaver, JJ (1972) Ohio State University.

K2.  May, E. C, Utts J.M and Spottishwoode JP (1995) “Decision Augmentation Theory: Towards a Model of Anomalous Phenomena”, The Journal of Parapsychology, 59, 197.

K3.  Jackson, Jessica (2003) “Spark Note on Tale of Two Cities” [On-line] Available:

http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/twocities/caharacters.html